The Evolution Of The Air Taser

The stun gun has gone through several editions, each one using advanced technology to increase the capabilities of this self defense weapon preferred by most people worldwide.

Indeed, today’s handheld electroshock weapons have come a long way from the earliest prototypes first developed in the 1960s.

Origins of the Stun Gun

It was an aerospace engineer that originally came up with the idea of creating a small propellant device that would emit a pair of projectiles. The projectiles looked more like barbed darts attached to wires coming out of a flashlight case. This first prototype was dubbed the Taser TF-76. The shock from these early devices was hardly more than enough to simply surprise a recalcitrant in the hopes that he would behave better.

The devices gained in popularity and Jack Cover, the engineer, soon started his own production company. Because it was considered a Title 2 weapon by the Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms division of the United States government, the Taser was only allowed to be used by law enforcement agents. Since this was such a limited market, it was not long before Cover’s company was forced to close its doors.

The Modern Stun Gun

The Taser would have faded into history if it were not for a pair of Arizona brothers who sought to revamp the weapon and make it available to the average consumer in mass markets.

Along with Jack Cover, the Smith brothers of Scottsdale came up with a new design that involved compressed air as the impetus for the darts in the cylinder. They called this new model the Air Taser 34000. The key differences were the propellant and the projectiles, which were composed of Anti-Felon Identification Confetti to aid in police tracking efforts.

The Air Taser was demonstrated at a conference in Prague. Unfortunately, it failed the test of law enforcement officials miserably as the jolt from the device was deemed not strong enough to stop an assailant. Thus the next incarnation of the stun gun came about.

The brothers and Cover went back to the drawing board and came up with a new way to deliver a stronger electric shock. This more potent shock would cause muscles to seize up, thereby rendering most assailants temporarily immobile. The Taser M18 and M26 stun guns quickly became a hit. Because it was non-lethal, these weapons were a perfect alternative to guns for many security personnel as well as law enforcement agents.

There have been many more versions of the original electroshock weapon created by Jack Cover decades ago. The shape has changed, the devices have become lighter, and advancing technology has allowed for a greater bang for the buck.

Today’s stun guns are sophisticated, non-lethal weapons that the average consumer can feel safe carrying for personal protection. Check out the available options on today’s market and find a self-defense device that is perfect for your needs.

The Right To Vote, A Patriotic Gift

How much do you appreciate your right to vote? Is it something that you truly cherish, or is it something that you just take this for granted? Consider this fact; throughout our American history, many average citizens like you and me fought for this right, and in some cases, even died for the right to vote! This is a patriotic gift from the struggles of many patriotic citizens that we should truly never take for granted.

Did you know that there are no laws for “the right to vote” in our United States Constitution? These rights were added only in the Amendments to the Constitution. Each state’s standards have evolved separately, unless federal laws were passed that applied to every state. When our country was founded, only white men with property were routinely permitted to vote, (although freed African Americans could vote in four states). White working men, almost all women, and all other people of color were denied this right, that some take for granted today.

At the beginning of the Civil War, most white men were finally allowed to vote, whether or not they owned property, due to the efforts of those who championed this cause for frontiersmen and white immigrants, (who had to wait 14 years for citizenship and their right to vote, in some cases). Literacy tests, poll taxes, and even religious tests were used in various states, and most of the white women, people of color, and Native Americans still did not have the right to vote.

Black Suffrage; The patriotic gifts of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution were passed following the Civil War, in the later 1860s. Besides outlawing slavery, these Amendments extended civil rights and suffrage (voting rights) to former slaves. Even thought the right to vote for African-Americans was established, there still were numerous restrictions that kept many black Americans from voting until the 1960s Voting Rights Act was passed. Thanks to the pressures of Dr. Martin Luther King and a powerful civil rights movement, the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy tests and provided federal enforcement of voting registration and other rights in several Southern states and Alaska.

Five years later, the patriotic gift of the Voting Rights Act of 1970 provided language assistance to minority voters who did not speak English fluently. Asian Pacific Americans and Latinos were major beneficiaries of this legislation.

Women’s Suffrage initiatives to promote voting for women have been traced back as far as the 1770s, but the modern movement for a vote for women traces its beginning to the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, when supporters of a Constitutional Amendment to allow women to vote finally came together. While this movement was slowed during the Civil War years, the two major suffragist organizations united after the war and pushed forward with a movement that culminated, and after many difficult years, the patriotic gift of the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote in 1920.

Native Americans had to become American citizens, and give up their tribal affiliations for the right to vote in 1887, but many did not become U. S. citizens until 1924. Most of the Western states continued to deny the right to vote through property requirements, economic pressures, hiding the polls, and condoning of physical violence against those who voted.

Asian Pacific Americans were considered “aliens ineligible for citizenship” since 1790. Interim changes to naturalization and immigration laws in 1943, 1946, and 1952 give the right to vote to some but not all immigrant Asian Pacific Americans. Because citizenship is a (precondition) for the right to vote, immigrant Asian Pacific Americans did not vote in large numbers until 1966 when the immigration and naturalization laws were changed.

Asian Pacific Americans born on American soil were American citizens, and had the right to vote. When 77,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry were put in American concentration camps during World War II, their right to vote was withheld during their captivity.

Mexican Americans in Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas were supposed to get voting rights along with American citizenship in 1848, when the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ended the Mexican American war. Property requirements and literacy requirements were imposed in those states to keep them from voting. The Sons of America, founded in 1921 fought for equality and the right to vote, but all Mexican Americans did not receive the right to vote until 1975.

Americans under the age of twenty-one in the late 1960s protested over their lack of suffrage. Many truly felt that if they were old enough to be drafted into service and go to Vietnam, then they should be able to vote. A series of protests ensued, most notably at the Chicago Democratic Convention, where protestors screamed and chanted many slogans of President Johnson’s handling of the Vietnam War, and the right to vote. In 1971, President Johnson signed our patriotic gift of the 26th Amendment granting Americans the right to vote at age eighteen.

I hope you now realize that even in “The land of the Free”, the evolution for the right to vote in the America has cost a heavy price for many, and should always be considered a true patriotic gift from those that struggled, endured and gave their life for this privilege that we have today.

Searching A Car – When Is It Authorized For Police To Do So

Things take place rather quickly after the police make an arrest. Normally, that person being detained doesn’t have enough time to take into consideration what his or her rights are simply because the instance is stressful. It is, thereby, important to become familiar with your rights any time you are arrested. If you’re arrested in or close by your automobile then you’ll need to understand how and also to what amount police officers can legally search your car or truck at the time of your charge.

In April 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a decision in the case of Arizona v. Gant which clarified the power of law enforcement to conduct a search of a motor vehicle incident to an arrest. The Court decided that unless law enforcement possess a correctly executed search warrant for the auto during the time of the arrest, the fact that the police are only able to search the motor vehicle if:

· The suspect could possibly reach for a weapon.

· The suspect can potentially try to get rid of evidence; or

· It may be reasonable for the authorities to believe that there is evidence in the motor vehicle that supports the wrongdoing for which someone is now being arrested.

The Court stressed that searches executed with no search warrant are presumptively illegal and therefore a search of a car incident to an arrest is an exception to that basic principle. Since a search of a auto incident to an arrest is an exception to the law, just restricted searches may be permissible.

This decision reduces the law enforcement community’s translation of the 1981 Supreme Court decision in New York v. Belton. Law enforcement, relying on the Belton decision, were normally searching the passenger area of motor vehicles whenever a driver or passenger of a motor vehicle was charged. This warrantless search was performed every time an arrest was made without any consideration to whether the defendant was in a posture to reach for a weapon or ruin evidence and without consideration as to if there seemed to be cause to think that there was evidence in the automobile supporting the arrest.

The Court’s decision in Arizona v. Gant requires law enforcement officers to reconsider when they may rightfully search automobiles at the time of an arrest. To provide an example, if the suspect has been detained and is without risk in police custody then the first two exceptions would not make an application since it is no longer possible for the suspect to reach for a weapon or attempt to destroy evidence in the vehicle. If the third exception may apply depends on the purpose of the arrest. When the defendant is charged with a traffic offense which includes drunk driving, for example, then the authorities could not search the vehicle to find if there is evidence tied to a new burglary in the area because the defendant wasn’t charged with a theft but rather for dui.

The Supreme Court’s recent decision makes very clear that the earlier procedures of routine motor vehicle searches incident to an arrest is unlawful. Instead, searches may only occur in certain defined instances. It is a ruling that police have criticized and that criminal lawyers have appreciated.

Famous Psychics – Allison DuBois

Allison DuBois is the real woman who inspired the television show, Medium. She was born on January 24, 1972, in Phoenix, Arizona, and even as a child, Allison knew that she was different from the other kids. She had one of her first life-after-death encounters with her great-grandfather after his funeral. She says she always identified with characters like Tabitha on the television show Bewitched because she knew they were “different” in the same way she was. Allison was careful about sharing any of these feelings with adults, though.

At about the age of 10, Allison was told by beings she has since identified as her guides that she really was special and that she would have an important impact on people when she was older.

Her guides continued to communicate with her during her teens, and while she wasn’t sure who was speaking to her, she knew that the source was good and she wasn’t afraid. Allison always felt connected to a Higher Power, but traditional church services made no sense to her. It seems as though the adults at church ‘sang about one thing and then practiced another.’

Allison spent her childhood trying to convince herself that she was ‘normal.’ She was a competitive roller-skater in the 1980s, and she enjoyed competing in figures, dance, and freestyle skating. She says she really enjoyed beating the boys in mixed competitions!

When her parents divorced, and her mother remarried, Allison found herself living on her own just one month shy of her 16th birthday. She says she was a lonely teenager and that these years were painful for her. It was then she realized that there were dark forces at work in the world, but with practice, one can learn to avoid them. Allison graduated from Corona del Sol high school in Tempe in 1990.

When she met her husband Joe, he said that it seemed like she had a light shining on her. She credits him with teaching her how to trust and says he has made her a better person. He encouraged her to follow her dream of going to college.

Allison received a B.A. in political science with a minor in history from Arizona State University. While she was in college, she worked as an intern in the office of the district attorney. It was then that she first realized the purpose of her psychic gifts. Allison found that she could visualize crimes just by handling evidence. Her visions have helped in solving crimes and finding missing people. She is known as a “research” medium. She uses her psychic abilities to aid law enforcement agencies nationwide. She has worked with the Texas Rangers and the police department in Glendale, Arizona. She also acts as a jury consultant. She has been instrumental in putting killers on death row. In addition to her law enforcement work, Allison puts her supernatural talents to work in helping individuals to connect with the loved ones they have lost.

Allison says that the television show Medium portrays events from her real-life experiences. She is very interested in helping young people with psychic abilities to understand those abilities and welcome them. She also wants everyone to have a better understanding of mediums and psychics and the potential they have.

Allison has written two books. Her first, Don’t Kiss Them Goodbye, describes her encounters with individuals who have passed over and her experiences as a profiler for law enforcement agencies. She talks about what it is like to have psychic abilities and how she struggles to live as normal a life as possible as a wife and mother. In her second book, We Are Their Heaven, she writes about the communications she has received from the spirits during her years as a medium. These experiences have led her to believe that the living are special to those who have died. They choose to remain with the living “not because they’re bound, but because we are their happiness, we are their heaven.”